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Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)

is a surgical procedure to treat nerve root or spinal cord compression by decompressing the spinal cord and nerve roots of the cervical spine with a discectomy in order to stabilize the corresponding vertebrae

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF)

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure used to correct problems with the small bones in the spine (vertebrae). It is essentially a "welding" process. The basic idea is to fuse together the painful vertebrae so that they heal into a single, solid bone. Spinal fusion is a treatment option when motion is the source of pain — the theory being that if the painful vertebrae do not move, they should not hurt.
An interbody fusion is a type of spinal fusion that involves removing the intervertebral disk. This type of fusion can be performed using different approaches. For example, the surgeon can access the spine through incisions in the lower back or through incisions in the side. In an anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), the surgeon approaches the lower back from the front through an incision in the abdomen

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The carpal tunnel is a narrow, tunnel-like structure in the wrist. The bottom and sides of this tunnel are formed by wrist (carpal) bones. The top of the tunnel is covered by a strong band of connective tissue called the transverse carpal ligament.
The median nerve travels from the forearm into the hand through this tunnel in the wrist. The median nerve controls feeling in the palm side of the thumb, index finger, and long fingers. The nerve also controls the muscles around the base of the thumb. The tendons that bend the fingers and thumb also travel through the carpal tunnel. These tendons are called flexor tendons.

Craniotomy

The surgical removal of a portion of the skull. Doing so allows the neurosurgeon to find the tumor and remove as much of it as possible. The piece of skull that was removed is replaced following surgery.

Craniectomy

Very similar to a craniotomy. The main difference is that, in this procedure, the portion of the skull that was removed to allow access to the brain is not replaced..

Shunt

The insertion of a drainage system designed to move excess fluid from the brain to another part of the body.

Cervical Laminectomy

Most neck pain is due to degenerative changes that occur in the intervertebral discs of the cervical spine and the joints between each vertebra. The vast majority of patients who have neck pain will not require any type of operation. However, in some cases degenerative changes in the cervical spine can lead to a very serious condition where there is too much pressure on the spinal cord. When this condition occurs, the entire spinal cord is in danger. One surgical option is to remove the pressure on the spinal cord by opening the spinal canal from the back to make the spinal canal larger. This procedure is called a laminectomy.

Lumbar Laminectomy

Most back pain is due to degenerative changes that occur in the intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine and the joints between each vertebra. The vast majority of patients who have back pain will not require any type of operation.
However, in some cases degenerative changes in the lumbar spine can lead to a condition where there is too much pressure on the nerves that travel through the spinal canal in the low back. When this condition occurs, the nerves in the spinal canal are in danger.
One surgical option is to remove the pressure on the spinal nerves by opening the spinal canal from the back to make the spinal canal larger. This procedure is called a lumbar laminectomy.

Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Spinal fusion (such as a TLIF) is a surgical technique to stabilize the spinal vertebra and the disc or shock absorber between the vertebra. Lumbar fusion surgery is designed to create solid bone between the adjoining vertebra, eliminating any movement between the bones. The goal of the surgery is to reduce pain and nerve irritation.
Spinal fusion may be recommended for conditions such as spondylolisthesis, degenerative disc disease or recurrent disc herniations. Surgeons perform lumbar fusion using several techniques. This article describes the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) fusion technique

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery Description

First, the spine is approached through a three-inch to six-inch long incision in the midline of the back and the left and right lower back muscles (erector spinae) are stripped off the lamina on both sides and at multiple levels.
After the spine is approached, the lamina is removed (laminectomy) which allows visualization of the nerve roots. The facet joints, which are directly over the nerve roots may then be undercut (trimmed) to give the nerve roots more room.
The nerve roots are then retracted to one side and the disc space is cleaned of the disc material.
A cage made of allograft bone, or posterior lumbar interbody cages with bone graft, is then inserted into the disc space and the bone grows from vertebral body to vertebral body.

Lumbar Fusion

The vast majority of patients who have low back pain will not need surgery to treat their condition. However, sometimes surgery can help when all other methods have failed to bring relief.
Many very different problems can cause low back pain. No one type of surgery is right for the treatment of every problem that causes low back pain.
Spinal fusion has been used for many years to treat many painful conditions in the lumbar (lower) spine. Over the past decade, there has been dramatic improvement in the way that spinal fusion operations are performed.
One major improvement has been the development of fixation devices. Designed to stabilize and hold the bones together while the fusion heals, these devices have greatly improved the success rate of fusion in the lower back.

DIAGNOSIS

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome affects the space between the collarbone and first rib (thoracic outlet). Common causes include trauma, repetitive injuries, pregnancy, and anatomical defects, such as having an extra rib.
Symptoms include pain in the shoulders and neck and numbness, weakness, and coldness in the fingers.

Cervical Spinal Stenosis

Most neck pain is due to degenerative changes that occur in the intervertebral discs of the cervical spine and the joints between each vertebra. Perhaps the most serious of the problems caused by degeneration of the spinal segment in the cervical spine is the condition of spinal stenosis.
In the late stages of spinal degeneration, bone spurs from the degenerative process can cause a condition known as spinal stenosis. As the bone spurs form, the size of the spinal canal becomes smaller. The bone spurs begin to press on the spinal cord or the nerve roots. Pressure on the nerves in the spinal cord can cause numbness, tingling, or pain in the arms, hands, and legs. This condition is sometimes called cervical myelopathy. It is from the simpler problem where only one nerve root is being pinched by a herniated disc or a bone spur.

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is term commonly used to describe a narrowing of the spinal canal. This problem is much more common in people over the age of 60. However, it can occur in younger people who have abnormally small spinal canals as a type of birth defect. The problem usually causes back pain and leg pain that comes and goes with activities such as walking.

Spondylolisthesis / Spondylosis

Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis are not your everyday terms thrown around by people who suffer from back pain. However, for some people, these words do have meaning. These two conditions affect about five to six percent of the population, and can lead to chronic back pain.

Degenerative Disc Disease

Many of the problems in the spine are caused because of the process of degeneration of the intervertebral disc. Everything you do during the day - once you stand upright - begins to test the spine's ability to support your body weight.
Over time, these repeated daily stresses and minor injuries can add up and begin to affect the discs in your spine. Minor injuries to the disc may occur and not cause pain at the time of the injury.
However, as they add up, the disc eventually begins to suffer from the wear and tear - it begins to degenerate.

Lumbar Herniated Disc

Lower back problems can occur for many different reasons. The terms ruptured disc and slipped disc seem to be used more commonly in the last few decades. People often assume that everyone who has back pain has a ruptured disc. However, a true herniated nucleus pulposus (the official medical name for this problem) is not very common. Most problems that cause pain in the back are not due to a herniated disc.

Cervicalgia

Cervicalgia is a pain in the neck which does not radiate outwards (or down the arms). Cervicalgia is slightly different to a neck strain, which is usually more short-lived.

Lumbago

Low back pain is caused by injury to a muscle (strain) or ligament (sprain). Common causes include improper lifting, poor posture, lack of regular exercise, fracture, ruptured disk, or arthritis.
Often, the only symptom is pain in the lower back